NPI's Cascadia Advocate

Offering commentary and analysis from Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, The Cascadia Advocate provides the Northwest Progressive Institute's uplifting perspective on world, national, and local politics.

Tuesday, October 15th, 2019

We’re watching the fourth 2020 Democratic presidential debate. Join us!

Good evening, and wel­come to NPI’s live cov­er­age of the fourth Demo­c­ra­t­ic pres­i­den­tial debate of the 2020 cycle.

NPI staff are watch­ing and shar­ing impres­sions of the debate as it progresses.

CNN and The New York Times are the media part­ners for this DNC-sanc­tioned debate, which is expect­ed to run three hours.

Tonight’s line­up of twelve can­di­dates is as follows:

  • Mass­a­chu­setts U.S. Sen­a­tor Eliz­a­beth Warren
  • For­mer Vice Pres­i­dent Joe Biden
  • Ver­mont U.S. Sen­a­tor Bernie Sanders
  • New Jer­sey U.S. Sen­a­tor Cory Booker
  • South Bend May­or Pete Buttigieg
  • For­mer Hous­ing and Urban Devel­op­ment Sec­re­tary Julián Castro
  • For­mer U.S. Rep­re­sen­ta­tive Beto O’Rourke
  • Cal­i­for­nia U.S. Sen­a­tor Kamala Harris
  • Min­neso­ta U.S. Sen­a­tor Amy Klobouchar
  • Entre­pre­neur Andrew Yang
  • Bil­lion­aire Tom Steyer
  • Hawaii U.S. Rep­re­sen­ta­tive Tul­si Gabbard

Our live cov­er­age begins below.

UPDATE, 4:55 PM (Ruairi): Ander­son Coop­er has begun intro­duc­ing the twelve can­di­dates. Joe Biden cameo ut on stage first.

UPDATE, 4:58 PM (Ruairi): With Sec­re­tary Julián Cas­tro present, the twelve can­di­dates who qual­i­fied for this debate are all on stage.

UPDATE, 5:03 PM (Ruairi): The CNN/New York Times debate, live from Ohio, has begun. There will be no open­ing state­ments, owing to the large num­ber of can­di­dates who are shar­ing the same stage tonight.

UPDATE, 5:03 PM (Ruairi): The debate starts with the issue of impeach­ment. Eliz­a­beth War­ren is asked why it shouldn’t be the vot­ers who decide Trump’s fate.

UPDATE, 5:04 PM (Ruairi): “Some issues are big­ger than pol­i­tics,” War­ren said. She argued that the fail­ure to hold an impeach­ment vote after the release of the Mueller report led to Trump com­mit­ting fur­ther crimes.

UPDATE, 5:06 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders says Democ­rats have no choice but to impeach: “Trump is the most cor­rupt Pres­i­dent in the his­to­ry of this coun­try.” Besides the Ukrain­ian inci­dent, Sanders also points to Don­ald Trump’s vio­la­tion of the Con­sti­tu­tion’s Emol­u­ments Clause.

UPDATE, 5:06 PM (Andrew): Very strong answers so far from Eliz­a­beth War­ren and Bernie Sanders on impeachment.

UPDATE, 5:06 PM (Andrew): “I agree with Bernie… Sen­a­tor Sanders,” Joe Biden says, call­ing Trump the most cor­rupt pres­i­dent in history.

UPDATE, 5:07 PM (Ruairi): Biden is asked about his sup­port for Pres­i­dent Clin­ton dur­ing his impeach­ment. Biden says that Trump’s stonewalling of Con­gress gives the House of Rep­re­sen­ta­tives no choice but to impeach.

UPDATE, 5:07 PM (Ruairi): Biden points to Trump’s unprece­dent­ed hos­til­i­ty towards the con­gres­sion­al investigations.

UPDATE, 5:09 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris: “Our framers imag­ined this moment…and right­ly designed our sys­tem of democ­ra­cy.” She says ” I know a con­fes­sion when I see it,” from Trump’s ongo­ing behavior.

UPDATE, 5:09 PM (Ruairi): Book­er was asked if he can be fair in a Sen­ate tri­al of Trump. He argued that the coun­try is fac­ing “a moral moment and not a polit­i­cal one!” He said that he will do his duty, even if Trump has vio­lat­ed his.

UPDATE, 5:10 PM (Andrew): Impeach­ment seems to unite this field like no oth­er issue. The mes­sage dis­ci­pline we’ve seen so far tonight is remarkable.

UPDATE, 5:11 PM (Ruairi): Amy Klobuchar said “we can do two things at once,” in response to the argu­ment that Democ­rats will dis­tract from big­ger issues with impeach­ment. Klobuchar demol­ished Trump’s recent for­eign pol­i­cy moves: cod­dling up to Putin, betray­ing the Kurds and the Ukraine scandal.

UPDATE, 5:12 PM (Ruairi): Julián Cas­tro said that Democ­rats “can walk and chew gum at the same time,” lay­ing out the ways Trump is both fail­ing in his promis­es to the vot­ers and betray­ing the country.

UPDATE, 5:13 PM (Ruairi): Pete Buttigieg said that Repub­li­cans are betray­ing “their own sup­posed val­ues” by sup­port­ing Trump. He said that politi­cians of the future will look to this moment to see if they can get away with ter­ri­ble behavior.

UPDATE, 5:14 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg then piv­ot­ed to the argu­ment that a Buttigieg pres­i­den­cy can unite a divid­ed, post-Trump America.

UPDATE, 5:15 PM (Ruairi): Tul­si Gab­bard steered a more cau­tious course on impeach­ment, but she says she does believe that Trump should be impeached.

UPDATE, 5:15 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er remind­ed every­body that he start­ed the Need to Impeach move­ment. He said that the House of Rep­re­sen­ta­tives has to impeach Trump as a mat­ter of principle.

UPDATE, 5:17 PM (Ruairi): Andrew Yang point­ed out that impeach­ing Trump won’t solve the prob­lems that led him into office. He returned to his trade­mark mes­sage of poli­cies that help peo­ple in the face of the fourth indus­tri­al revolution.

UPDATE, 5:17 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke said that vet­er­ans brave­ly defend the coun­try against ene­mies, and Con­gress has to show brav­ery in tak­ing on Trump’s criminality.

UPDATE, 5:19 PM (Ruairi): Biden was asked about his son’s for­eign busi­ness ties while he was Vice Pres­i­dent. “My son did noth­ing wrong, I did noth­ing wrong,” said Biden. He wants to focus on the impor­tance of remov­ing Trump from office.

UPDATE, 5:19 PM (Ruairi): Biden recalled that George Wash­ing­ton him­self warned about for­eign inter­fer­ence in elec­tions. “The Pres­i­dent and his thugs have already proven that they are flat lying.”

UPDATE, 5:20 PM (Ruairi): Biden promised that, if nom­i­nat­ed by the Democ­rats, he will beat Trump “like a drum” in the election.

UPDATE, 5:20 PM (Ruairi): Biden said he is proud of his son’s judg­ment in how he is deal­ing with the President’s false accusations.

UPDATE, 5:21 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders brought up the oth­er cru­cial issues the coun­try faces, point­ing out that vot­ers can’t be led to believe that the Democ­rats only want to take on Trump.

UPDATE, 5:22 PM (Ruairi): Eliz­a­beth War­ren was asked about Medicare for All – will she raise tax­es on mid­dle income fam­i­lies? War­ren respond­ed: “For hard-work­ing mid­dle class fam­i­lies, costs will go down.”

UPDATE, 5:23 PM (Ruairi): War­ren recalled con­ver­sa­tions with peo­ple who have had ter­ri­ble ill­ness­es and declared that their insur­ance com­pa­nies “pulled the rug from under­neath them.” She said that peo­ple shouldn’t wor­ry about the costs of health­care when fac­ing illness.

UPDATE, 5:24 PM (Ruairi): War­ren dodged a ques­tion framed around tax­es, say­ing that “costs” will not go up. Buttigieg went on the offen­sive, say­ing that War­ren doesn’t have a plan for Medicare for All, and doesn’t have an answer.

UPDATE, 5:25 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg said that his plan, “Medicare for All Who Want It”, avoids “a giant, mul­ti-tril­lion dol­lar hole.” War­ren slapped him down: “Under­stand what that tru­ly means – Medicare for All Who Can Afford It.”

UPDATE, 5:26 PM (Andrew): Real­ly bad fram­ing here from Pete Buttigieg. Not a good look for him at all. Going after War­ren was­n’t a good choice.

UPDATE, 5:26 PM (Ruairi): “Costs are what peo­ple care about,” argued War­ren. Buttigieg declared that he believes that giv­ing peo­ple a choice is bet­ter than pass­ing leg­is­la­tion that he believes would “oblit­er­ate pri­vate plans.”

UPDATE, 5:28 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders retort­ed that under his plan, “pre­mi­ums are gone, co-pay­ments are gone…we’re going to do bet­ter than the Cana­di­ans have done.” He does think “it is appro­pri­ate to acknowl­edge that tax­es will go up,” and says that the drop in costs will com­pen­sate for tax increases.

UPDATE, 5:29 PM (Ruairi): Despite hav­ing been giv­en a great argu­ment by Sanders, War­ren again declined to answer a ques­tion framed around tax­es. Amy Klobuchar pounced, cit­ing War­ren’s refusal to accept that fram­ing, and argued that what the coun­try needs is an expand­ed Patient Pro­tec­tion Act.

UPDATE, 5:29 PM (Ruairi): Strange­ly, Klobuchar just offered up the crazy argu­ment that sup­port­ing Medicare for All is “a Repub­li­can talk­ing point.”

UPDATE, 5:30 PM (Ruairi): War­ren said “the problem…is the over­all cost of health­care.” She recalls her record of study­ing the caus­es of bank­rupt­cy in the Unit­ed States. Klobuchar snaps back that there’s a dif­fer­ence “between a plan and a pipe dream.” Health­care for all is a pipe dream?

UPDATE, 5:31 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar then piv­ot­ed to admon­ish­ing phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal com­pa­nies for their bot­tom­less greed.

UPDATE, 5:32 PM (Ruairi): Biden was asked about health­care. He says that an expand­ed Patient Pro­tec­tion Act is “the Biden plan.” He con­ced­ed that costs will go down under War­ren and Sanders’ plans, but argued that tax­es would go up.

UPDATE, 5:33 PM (Ruairi): Sanders says that he is tired of peo­ple defend­ing a sys­tem that is “dys­func­tion­al and cru­el.” He argues that Democ­rats need “the guts” to fol­low through on last­ing health­care reform.

UPDATE, 5:33 PM (Andrew): Kamala Har­ris took the ini­tia­tive to steer this health­care con­ver­sa­tion in a dif­fer­ent direc­tion by talk­ing about repro­duc­tive health. The can­di­dates should do this kind of piv­ot­ing more often.

UPDATE, 5:34 PM (Ruairi): As men­tioned, Kamala Har­ris chose to change the sub­ject. She brought up the attack on repro­duc­tive rights in the Unit­ed States “Women will die… because these Repub­li­can leg­is­la­tures who are out of touch with Amer­i­ca are telling women what they can do with their bodies.”

UPDATE, 5:35 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders was asked about the threat of automa­tion to Amer­i­can jobs. “Damn right we will…” have enough jobs to fill the gaps left by automa­tion, Sanders said. He argued in favor of mas­sive infra­struc­ture devel­op­ment to pro­vide jobs to Americans.

UPDATE, 5:36 PM (Ruairi): Sanders argued that a Green New Deal will cre­ate twen­ty mil­lion new jobs for Amer­i­cans: teach­ers, doc­tors, den­tists, car­pen­ters. He also point­ed out that can­celling stu­dent debt will give peo­ple opportunities.

UPDATE, 5:37 PM (Andrew): Andrew Yang just uttered the words “trick­le up econ­o­my”. Um, what? There’s no such thing.

UPDATE, 5:37 PM (Ruairi): Yang argued that a fed­er­al jobs guar­an­tee will trap peo­ple in jobs they do not work. He says that the fed­er­al gov­ern­ment will not han­dle resources as well as indi­vid­u­als will under his Uni­ver­sal Basic Income plan.

UPDATE, 5:38 PM (Ruairi): Cory Book­er is feeling”déja vu all over again” with respect to the for­mat, pac­ing, and top­i­cal mat­ter in this debate.

UPDATE, 5:39 PM (Ruairi): War­ren argued that “bad trade pol­i­cy” and multi­na­tion­al cor­po­ra­tions are to blame for job loss­es, not automa­tion. War­ren declared that she wants “account­able cap­i­tal­ism,” where forty per­cent of board seat in com­pa­nies are elect­ed by work­ers (a sim­i­lar sys­tem to Germany).

UPDATE, 5:40 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro was asked about Warren’s state­ment. He says automa­tion “is only part of the issue,” and that he would be will­ing to pilot U.B.I. poli­cies. He wants invest­ment in infra­struc­ture and a Green New Deal.

UPDATE, 5:42 PM (Ruairi): Yang clashed a bit with War­ren – he point­ed to the mil­lions of truck dri­vers and the indus­tries rely­ing on such work­ers, who could find them­selves replaced by autonomous trucks.

UPDATE, 5:42 PM (Ruairi): War­ren com­pares Uni­ver­sal Basic Income to Social Secu­ri­ty, a decades-old deferred pay­ment sys­tem she is plan­ning to expand. She addressed many of Yang’s cri­tiques direct­ly, point-by-point.

UPDATE, 5:44 PM (Ruairi): Tul­si Gab­bard said she wants to “get to the heart of the fear.” She real­izes that many peo­ple are afraid of the uncer­tain­ty that eco­nom­ic changes bring. She doesn’t believe in a fed­er­al jobs guarantee.

UPDATE, 5:44 PM (Ruairi): Cory Book­er was asked about the UAW work­ers’ strike – how would he con­vince Gen­er­al Motors to return jobs to the Unit­ed States? Book­er says that Yang’s UBI plan wouldn’t put the dig­ni­ty back in work.

UPDATE, 5:45 PM (Ruairi): Book­er wants Amer­i­can work­ers to be “at the cen­ter of every trade deal.” He point­ed to his long­stand­ing sup­port of trade unions, and promis­es to help unions spread in his pres­i­den­cy. He also argued for a liv­ing wage.

UPDATE, 5:47 PM (Andrew): One of the themes of tonight so far has been a focus on ele­vat­ing the role of unions in this coun­try. A lot of can­di­dates have talked about strength­en­ing the labor move­ment and bol­ster­ing col­lec­tive bar­gain­ing rights. That is refresh­ing to hear and great to see!

UPDATE, 5:47 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke was asked the same ques­tion. He said that Ohio has been “dec­i­mat­ed by [GM’s] malfea­sance.” He called for fair­er trade deals that help Mex­i­can work­ers to join unions, increased invest­ment in school edu­ca­tion and col­lege, union membership.

UPDATE, 5:48 PM (Ruairi): Sanders was asked about income inequal­i­ty, and his wealth tax – will he “tax bil­lion­aires out of exis­tence.” He imme­di­ate­ly point­ed to the mil­lions of home­less, unin­sured peo­ple, those strug­gling with stu­dent debt. He said that the bil­lion­aire class has been at war with the work­ing class for forty-five years. He wants “a nation and a gov­ern­ment that works for all of us.”

UPDATE, 5:50 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er, the bil­lion­aire on stage, starts by emphat­i­cal­ly agree­ing with Sanders about the inequal­i­ty in Amer­i­ca. He would undo Trump’s tax poli­cies and intro­duce a wealth tax.

UPDATE, 5:50 PM (Ruairi): Stey­er argued that “our gov­ern­ment has failed” and that cor­po­ra­tions have bought the gov­ern­ment. Shock­ing­ly, the bil­lion­aire is try­ing to out-Bernie Bernie Sanders! Stey­er is no John Delaney.

UPDATE, 5:51 PM (Ruairi): Biden wants to reward work, not wealth. He promis­es to change the tax sys­tem to ben­e­fit work­ers rather the wealthy. He wants to elim­i­nate bil­lions of dol­lars that escape tax­es through loopholes.

UPDATE, 5:52 PM (Andrew): Tom Stey­er made it very clear he’s in align­ment with Bernie Sanders on tack­ling income inequal­i­ty and achiev­ing fair tax­a­tion, offer­ing a pow­er­ful com­men­tary on what’s hap­pened dur­ing the past forty years.

UPDATE, 5:52 PM (Ruairi): Biden said “the fact is that every­body is right” on stage about many of the issues. War­ren said “show me your bud­get, show me your tax plan, and we’ll know where your val­ues are.”

UPDATE, 5:54 PM (Ruairi): War­ren point­ed to the many ben­e­fits of her wealth tax – mas­sive rais­es in invest­ment in edu­ca­tion across the board. She won­dered aloud: ”Why does every­one else on this stage [except Bernie Sanders] think it is more impor­tant to pro­tect bil­lion­aires than an entire gen­er­a­tion of Americans?”

UPDATE, 5:54 PM (Andrew): The CNN/NYT mod­er­a­tors real­ly need to stop cut­ting off the can­di­dates in a lame attempt to enforce time limits.

UPDATE, 5:55 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg recalled grow­ing up in the Mid­west, see­ing indus­tri­al decay as he grew up. He says that Democ­rats are pay­ing atten­tion to the wrong things, and pos­si­bly let­ting Trump win again.

UPDATE, 5:56 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar snapped back at War­ren, say­ing ”not even the bil­lion­aire wants to help the bil­lion­aires” on stage (a ref­er­ence to Stey­er). She then turns to attack­ing Trump’s tax plans. “Tax­ing income is not going to get you where you want to be,” argues Warren.

UPDATE, 5:57 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar says she wouldn’t even be on the stage if it weren’t for unions. “Just because we have dif­fer­ent ideas,” does­n’t mean she and oth­er can­di­dates do not sup­port a lev­el play­ing field for workers.

UPDATE, 5:57 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris was asked about her plan to give tax breaks to work­ing fam­i­lies. She recalled how, grow­ing up, her moth­er strug­gled to “make it work” for their family.

UPDATE, 5:59 PM (Ruairi): Yang said that Warren’s wealth tax “makes a lot of sense in prin­ci­ple,” but that Euro­pean coun­tries that have imple­ment­ed wealth tax­es have repealed them because they were unworkable.

UPDATE, 6:00 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke argued that War­ren is focused on “being puni­tive” rather than bring­ing peo­ple togeth­er. He promised to not increase tax­es on work­ing families.

UPDATE, 6:02 PM (Ruairi): “I don’t have a beef with bil­lion­aires,” argued War­ren, but she says “all of us helped pay for” the top 1%’s suc­cess. She point­ed again to the essen­tial ser­vices that her plans would fund – pre‑K, rais­ing child­care work­ers’ wages, uni­ver­sal col­lege, and so on.

UPDATE, 6:03 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro said that he grew up in a sin­gle-par­ent house­hold that strug­gled to get by. He sees peo­ple strug­gling to cope across the Unit­ed States. He pro­pos­es a wealth inequal­i­ty tax and rais­ing the top tax rate.

UPDATE, 6:04 PM (Ruairi): Book­er went back to his theme of bring­ing the can­di­dates togeth­er and mak­ing sure that Trump can’t win again – get­ting a big  round of applause from the audience.

UPDATE, 6:05 PM (Ruairi): Book­er then brought up the “moral obscen­i­ty” of Amer­i­can child pover­ty, not­ing it does­n’t get much attention.

UPDATE, 6:11 PM (Ruairi): The debate has turned to Trump’s aban­don­ment of the Kurds in north­ern Syr­ia. Biden was asked if he would send Amer­i­can troops back into the region of Syr­ia where they pre­vi­ous­ly were. Biden points out that the Amer­i­cans who are still in Syr­ia are under attack because of Trump’s decision.

UPDATE, 6:12 PM (Ruairi): Biden sounds a lit­tle inco­her­ent about the lead­ers of Syr­ia and Turkey (Assad and Erdo­gan). He promis­es to find the way back to a sit­u­a­tion where the Kurds would be protected.

UPDATE, 6:13 PM (Andrew): “Regime change wars.” Tul­si Gab­bard is try­ing real­ly, real­ly hard here to dri­ve home her fram­ing on the con­flict in Syria.

UPDATE, 6:13 PM (Ruairi): Gab­bard says that the slaugh­ter of the Kurds is a ram­i­fi­ca­tion of the “regime change war” in Syr­ia. She is shame­ful­ly describ­ing the Syr­i­an Rev­o­lu­tion, which was bru­tal­ly sup­pressed by Bashar al Assad as a West­ern-led effort to end the Assad regime.

UPDATE, 6:14 PM (Ruairi): Gab­bard asked War­ren to call for an end to “regime change war.” War­ren said that she wants to get U.S. troops out of the Mid­dle East, but wants to do it respon­si­bly, not dis­as­trous­ly as Trump has done.

UPDATE, 6:15 PM (Ruairi): War­ren added: “we need to get out, but we need to do this through a nego­ti­at­ed solution.”

UPDATE, 6:16 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg took Gab­bard to task on the caus­es of the Syr­i­an War. He argues that Amer­i­can forces were “the only thing” between the Kurds and “the begin­ning of a geno­cide and the resur­gence of ISIS.”

UPDATE, 6:17 PM (Ruairi): Gab­bard accused Buttigieg of desir­ing to con­tin­ue the “regime change war” and under­min­ing the Unit­ed States’ nation­al security.

UPDATE, 6:18 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg said that Don­ald Trump is “tak­ing away the hon­or of Amer­i­can soldiers.”

UPDATE, 6:19 PM (Ruairi): Sanders said that “Turkey is not a U.S. ally when they invade anoth­er coun­try and engage in mass slaugh­ter.” Sanders recalled that 11,000 Kur­dish troops died fight­ing ISIS on Amer­i­ca’s behalf.

UPDATE, 6:19 PM (Andrew): Pete Buttigieg is far­ing much bet­ter in this for­eign pol­i­cy seg­ment than in the pre­vi­ous segments.

UPDATE, 6:19 PM (Ruairi): Sanders assert­ed that “[Trump] has wrecked our abil­i­ty to do for­eign policy…because nobody in the world will believe this patho­log­i­cal liar.”

UPDATE, 6:20 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg assessed that Don­ald Trump’s fail­ure to pro­vide lead­er­ship in the world com­mu­ni­ty has caused coun­tries like Turkey and Sau­di Ara­bia (both autoc­ra­cies) to behave irresponsibly.

UPDATE, 6:21 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar said she wants to work with US allies to call on Turkey to reverse course. She cit­ed oth­er Unit­ed States allies who feel threat­ened by Trump’s untrustworthiness.

UPDATE, 6:22 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris says that Trump has “sold out the Kurds.” She says Trump has giv­en “10,000 ISIS fight­ers a get-out-of-jail-free card.” She says “this is a cri­sis of Don­ald Trump’s mak­ing… I will stop this madness!”

UPDATE, 6:23 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro said he wants peo­ple to think about how Trump “cages kids on the bor­der and effec­tive­ly lets ISIS fight­ers run free.” Cas­tro brought up the ter­mi­na­tion of the Joint Com­pre­hen­sive Plan of Action with Iran as anoth­er exam­ple of Trump’s failed leadership.

UPDATE, 6:24 PM (Andrew): Props to Cory Book­er for bring­ing up Trump’s dis­as­trous pol­i­cy of enabling Sau­di Ara­bia to inflict may­hem in Yemen.

UPDATE, 6:24 PM (Ruairi): Cory Book­er was asked about check­ing Russ­ian pow­er. He said that Trump is turn­ing the “moral lead­er­ship of this coun­try into a dump­ster fire.” He says that Rus­sia will grow in influ­ence if the Unit­ed States aban­dons its respon­si­bil­i­ties and lead­er­ship role.

UPDATE, 6:25 PM (Andrew): Biden accu­rate­ly described Trump as some­body “who knows not a damn thing about for­eign policy.”

UPDATE, 6:25 PM (Ruairi): Book­er argued that the Rus­sians under­stand strength, and that Trump shows “moral weak­ness.” Trump is “part­ner­ing more with Putin than he is with Merkel and Macron.”

UPDATE, 6:26 PM (Ruairi): Biden declared that he knows Erdo­gan per­son­al­ly, and says that the Turk­ish Pres­i­dent “knows that if he’s out of NATO, he’s in real trou­ble.” Biden attacked Gabbard’s “regime change” rhetoric, say­ing the U.S. pol­i­cy under Oba­ma was to save lives from a mur­der­ous dictator.

UPDATE, 6:28 PM (Ruairi): O’Rourke was asked about Putin’s cor­rup­tion. He says that the Unit­ed States must be “unafraid of hold­ing Rus­sia account­able for invad­ing the world’s great­est democ­ra­cy.” He says that the coun­try needs to renew alliances to take on Russia.

UPDATE, 6:29 PM (Ruairi): “The Kurds are a case in point,” O’Rourke elab­o­rat­ed. He says that the betray­al of the Kurds ensures that anoth­er gen­er­a­tion of Amer­i­can troops will have to defend against ISIS.

UPDATE, 6:30 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er would work to reveal the cor­rup­tion of Vladimir Putin. He said that Trump’s “Amer­i­ca First” diplo­ma­cy has “proved to be a dis­as­ter.” He also brought up the need for cli­mate justice.

UPDATE, 6:31 PM (Ruairi): Andrew Yang wants to look at the chain of events, from Trump’s elec­tion to the dis­as­trous for­eign poli­cies. In pass­ing, he acknowl­edged that the Unit­ed States, as well as Rus­sia, has inter­fered in elections.

UPDATE, 6:32 PM (Ruairi): Yang says that Rus­sia is a per­fect case exam­ple of the twen­ty-first cen­tu­ry prob­lems the Unit­ed States faces.

UPDATE, 6:32 PM (Ruairi): Amy Klobuchar says that the Unit­ed States can’t be moral­ly com­pared to Rus­sia – but she cit­ed exam­ples of Russ­ian actions that the U.S. could also be accused of (like inter­fer­ing in elec­tions and shoot­ing down planes car­ry­ing civilians).

UPDATE, 6:34 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke was asked how his plan to round up assault weapons would work. He wants to ban the sale of assault weapons, refer­ring to mas­sacres in Day­ton and El Paso. He says every sin­gle assault weapon is “a poten­tial weapon of terror.”

UPDATE, 6:36 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg said that “we can’t wait” for uni­ver­sal back­ground checks, red-flag laws or oth­er poli­cies. He says we have “to just get some­thing done,” although he didn’t say what he meant by that.

UPDATE, 6:37 PM (Ruairi): O’Rourke says we can do more than one thing. He doesn’t want to be “lim­it­ed by the polls or the con­sul­tants.” Buttigieg, a vet­er­an, retort­ed: “I don’t need lessons from you on courage,” before argu­ing that the Pres­i­dent needs to take on the NRA.

UPDATE, 6:38 PM (Ruairi): O’Rourke argues that Buttigieig’s descrip­tion of an assault weapon ban as “a shiny object” is “a slap in the face” to sur­vivors. The exchange between O’Rourke and Buttigieg has become quite ill-tempered.

UPDATE, 6:40 PM (Ruairi): Cory Book­er recalls a per­son­al con­nec­tion who was mur­dered with an assault weapon. He doesn’t want to attack his rivals, but says that gun vio­lence is “a dai­ly night­mare” for many Americans.

UPDATE, 6:40 PM (Ruairi): Book­er then point­ed out that there are more mass shoot­er drills in schools than fire drills.

UPDATE, 6:41 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar was asked about her vol­un­tary buy­back pro­pos­al: “The major­i­ty of Trump vot­ers want to see uni­ver­sal back­ground checks.” She points to the bills that are already in the leg­isla­tive process. She doesn’t want the fight to “mess up” the Democrats.

UPDATE, 6:42 PM (Ruairi): War­ren wants to iden­ti­fy the huge spread of gun vio­lence: mass shoot­ings, sui­cides, domes­tic vio­lence, etc. She wants to know “why hasn’t it hap­pened?” War­ren also wants to get rid of the fil­i­buster so we can deal with gun vio­lence, oth­er­wise the NRA will have “a veto” over legislation.

UPDATE, 6:42 PM (Andrew): Huge props to Eliz­a­beth War­ren for say­ing we need to repeal the fil­i­buster. That’s essen­tial to mak­ing the Sen­ate work again.

UPDATE, 6:44 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris recalled her record as a pros­e­cu­tor deal­ing with the vic­tims of gun vio­lence. She said she has a strong plat­form, and will give Con­gress one hun­dred days to adopt the platform.

UPDATE, 6:45 PM (Ruairi): Biden claimed he is the only one on stage who “beat the NRA twice,” with gun leg­is­la­tion in the 1990s.

“I’ve done this, and I know how to get it done.”

UPDATE, 6:42 PM (Andrew): Too bad that 1990s-era assault weapons ban had an expi­ra­tion date. How about we don’t make that same mis­take next time?

UPDATE, 6:46 PM (Ruairi): Sec­re­tary Cas­tro recalled gun vio­lence inci­dents in his ear­li­er life. He argued that manda­to­ry buy­backs are a recipe for increased police killings, declar­ing: “I am not going to give police anoth­er rea­son to go door-to-door in cer­tain communities.”

UPDATE, 6:47 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar was asked about the opi­oid epi­dem­ic in rur­al com­mu­ni­ties. “This should nev­er have hap­pened to begin with… it’s got­ten  worse and worse,” the Sen­a­tor said.

UPDATE, 6:48 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar wants the phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal com­pa­nies to pay for rehab and treat­ment, with a num­ber of tax­es she has pro­posed. She recalled her father, who strug­gled with alco­holism for decades.

UPDATE, 6:49 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er calls the epi­dem­ic a “heart­break­ing expe­ri­ence” for Amer­i­ca. He wants to treat it as a pub­lic health cri­sis. He argued that the opi­oid epi­dem­ic is anoth­er facet of the dom­i­nance of large cor­po­ra­tions in Amer­i­can government.

UPDATE, 6:51 PM (Ruairi): Yang argued that “this is a dis­ease of cap­i­tal­ism run amok.” He says that the fines on phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal com­pa­nies are not near­ly suf­fi­cient. He wants to give peo­ple coun­sel­ing and treat­ment, not a prison term.

UPDATE, 6:52 PM (Ruairi): Yang said he wants to open safe injec­tion cen­ters because they save lives. O’Rourke agrees that decrim­i­nal­iza­tion is nec­es­sary, and sup­ports legal­iz­ing mar­i­jua­na, which is far less addic­tive than opioids.

UPDATE, 6:53 PM (Ruairi): Har­ris said she wants to send phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal exec­u­tives to jail: “They are noth­ing more than some high-lev­el dope deal­ers.” She says the bil­lion in phar­ma prof­its are “on the backs” of vic­tims of the epidemic.

UPDATE, 6:54 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro is also in favor of impris­on­ing phar­ma exec­u­tives, as well as Wall Street exec­u­tives who caused the finan­cial crisis.

UPDATE, 6:55 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders point­ed to the extreme wealth of phar­ma exec­u­tives, who knew that their prod­ucts were killing peo­ple. “This is what unfet­tered cap­i­tal­ism is doing to this country…we need a polit­i­cal revolution!”

UPDATE, 6:56 PM (Ruairi): Sanders was asked about his recent heart attack. He invites the audi­ence to a ral­ly in Queens, New York City. He plans to reas­sure the Amer­i­can peo­ple with the vig­or of his con­tin­u­ing pres­i­den­tial campaign.

UPDATE, 6:56 PM (Andrew): The Wash­ing­ton Post is report­ing that Alexan­dria Oca­sio-Cortez will endorse Sanders’ cam­paign at that ral­ly in Queens.

UPDATE, 6:57 PM (Ruairi): Sanders offered a heart­felt thanks to the many who have sup­port­ed him through his health scare. He was applaud­ed by the oth­er can­di­dates onstage, as well as by mem­bers of the audience.

UPDATE, 6:58 PM (Ruairi): Biden argued that his age brings wis­dom. He says that he has the expe­ri­ence as Vice Pres­i­dent to do the job of pres­i­dent “on day one…I know what has to be done, I’ve done it before.”

UPDATE, 6:58 PM (Ruairi): Biden said he doesn’t need any on-the-job train­ing. He promised to release his med­ical records before the Iowa cau­cus­es to reas­sure voters.

UPDATE, 7:00 PM (Ruairi): War­ren was also asked about her age. She said she will “out work, out orga­nize or out last any­one, and that includes Don­ald Trump.” She piv­ots to her key mes­sage – tak­ing on the cor­po­rate cor­rup­tion and big issues.

UPDATE, 7:00 PM (Ruairi): War­ren added: “Democ­rats will win when we give peo­ple a rea­son to get in the fight.”

UPDATE, 7:01 PM (Ruairi): Gab­bard would be the youngest pres­i­dent in his­to­ry. She is asked: “Does age mat­ter?” She turned the ques­tion around, ask­ing: “Who is fit to serve?” She argued that Trump is unfit to be president.

UPDATE, 7:02 PM (Ruairi): Gab­bard argued that her expe­ri­ence in Con­gress and the mil­i­tary has pre­pared her to be Commander-in-Chief.

UPDATE, 7:02 PM (Andrew): Gab­bard, try­ing to start a con­ver­sa­tion on her own terms, real­ly got cut off there as the mod­er­a­tors head­ed to a com­mer­cial break. The oth­er can­di­dates prob­a­bly don’t mind in the slightest.

UPDATE, 7:08 PM (Ruairi): Back from the break. Andrew Yang was asked about break­ing up big tech prob­lems. He says that increased com­pe­ti­tion will not nec­es­sary solve the prob­lems caused by the tech companies.

UPDATE, 7:09 PM (Ruairi): Yang argued that the exist­ing anti-trust frame­work won’t work to solve twen­ty-first cen­tu­ry prob­lems. War­ren coun­tered that she is not will­ing to give up so eas­i­ly. She described the process by which Ama­zon is increas­ing­ly dom­i­nat­ing ecom­merce in the U.S. and oth­er countries.

UPDATE, 7:11 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er agreed with War­ren about deal­ing with monop­o­lies and monop­o­lis­tic behav­ior. He point­ed out that Trump will be run­ning on the econ­o­my – Stey­er says that, “as a real busi­ness­man,” he can take on Trump’s argu­ments by show­ing him to be “a fraud and a fail­ure” as president.

UPDATE, 7:12 PM (Ruairi): Book­er point­ed out that tech com­pa­nies are under­min­ing democray itself. He wants to strict­ly enforce anti-trust laws.

UPDATE, 7:13 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke described the con­trol that Face­book has over people’s lives – he wants to treat Face­book as a pub­lish­er, not a util­i­ty com­pa­ny. He then expressed cau­tion about using the pow­er of gov­ern­ment to dic­tate busi­ness practices.

UPDATE, 7:14 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders, dis­cussing the”rigged econ­o­my,” point­ed to the mas­sive monop­o­lies devel­op­ing in every indus­try. He wants to appoint an attor­ney gen­er­al who will take on monopolies.

UPDATE, 7:14 PM (Andrew): Kudos to Bernie Sanders for bring­ing up the issue of mass media own­er­ship. Media con­cen­tra­tion is an issue that *almost nev­er* gets dis­cussed in the mass media, for obvi­ous reasons.

UPDATE, 7:15 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris was asked if break­ing up tech com­pa­nies would increase elec­tion inter­fer­ence. No, she said. On monop­o­lies, she said that “the rules that apply to the pow­er­less don’t apply to the powerful.”

UPDATE, 7:16 PM (Ruairi): Har­ris argued that Twit­ter should sus­pend Trump’s account due to his vio­lent, anti­de­mo­c­ra­t­ic and threat­en­ing rhetoric. She asked War­ren why she has not tak­en the same stance.

UPDATE, 7:17 PM (Ruairi): Har­ris sought to tie her stance on Trump’s Twit­ter account to Warren’s stance on big tech com­pa­nies. War­ren brought the con­ver­sa­tion back to cor­po­rate cor­rup­tion in Amer­i­can politics.

UPDATE, 7:18 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar argued that “we have anoth­er Gild­ed Age going on.” She wants to break down con­sol­i­da­tion in key indus­tries and empow­er reg­u­la­to­ry enforce­ment of the rules.

UPDATE, 7:19 PM (Ruairi): Klobuchar lament­ed a “start-up slump” in the USA.

UPDATE, 7:20 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro lam­bast­ed Ama­zon for destroy­ing small busi­ness­es and mis­treat­ing its work­ers. Andrew Yang said he wants to change how data is treat­ed – peo­ple should be paid by com­pa­nies for their data.

UPDATE, 7:21 PM (Ruairi): The debate turned to the issue of repro­duc­tive rights. Har­ris plans to take on states that vio­late Roe v. Wade. Her Depart­ment of Jus­tice would stop anti-free­dom laws being enact­ed through pre-clearance.

UPDATE, 7:22 PM (Ruairi): Har­ris point­ed to her famous inter­ro­ga­tion of Brett Kavanaugh. Char­ac­ter­iz­ing the need ro pro­tect a wom­an’s right to obtain an abor­tion, she said: ”It is her body, it is her right, it is her decision.”

UPDATE, 7:22 PM (Ruairi): Amy Klobuchar point­ed to the fact that Don­ald Trump argued that women should go to jail for abor­tions – he has been try­ing to defund Planned Par­ent­hood, while she would fund it properly.

UPDATE, 7:23 PM (Ruairi): Book­er sees the attack on abor­tion as anoth­er exam­ple of an assault on pover­ty, since lim­i­ta­tions on abor­tion hit the poor­est hard­est. Book­er would cre­ate a White House office of repro­duc­tive freedom.

UPDATE, 7:25 PM (Ruairi): Tul­si Gab­bard sees abor­tion being used as a divi­sive polit­i­cal weapon. She quot­ed Hillary Clin­ton in say­ing “abor­tion should be safe, legal and rare.” She does sup­port some restric­tions on abor­tion. That posi­tion is unlike­ly to go over well with pro­gres­sive activists.

UPDATE, 7:26 PM (Ruairi): Biden was asked if he would add jus­tices to the Supreme Court to off­set the seat Mitch McConnell stole. Biden argued that “court-pack­ing” would under­mine the legit­i­ma­cy of the Supreme Court. He says that he would cam­paign against peo­ple throw­ing up bar­ri­ers to con­sti­tu­tion­al rights.

UPDATE, 7:27 PM (Ruairi): Biden said he sup­ports the right to pri­va­cy, on which a woman’s right to choose an abor­tion is based. Biden says that he would rec­om­mend using McConnell’s tac­tics against him by hold­ing up any new Supreme Court nom­i­na­tions until the next election.

UPDATE, 7:28 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg sug­gest­ed that maybe the Supreme Court should be increased to a total size of fif­teen mem­bers, with a process to ensure bipar­ti­san­ship and depoliticization.

UPDATE, 7:28 PM (Ruairi): Cas­tro said he thinks Buttigieg’s ideas are inter­est­ing. He is more interesed, though, in Supreme Court term lim­its to ensure “a replen­ish­ment of perspective.”

UPDATE, 7:30 PM (Ruairi): War­ren said she lived before the Roe v. Wade deci­sion – rich peo­ple still got abor­tions in those days! She says that three fourths of Amer­i­cans believe Roe v. Wade should be upheld. “We should not leave this to the Supreme Court, we should do it with democ­ra­cy because we can!”

UPDATE, 7:31 PM (Ruairi): Biden was asked about the big visions of his clos­est rivals, War­ren and Sanders. He claimed that he is the only can­di­date who has ever got­ten any­thing big done (refer­ring to the Oba­ma years and his time in the Sen­ate). “Who’s gonna be able to get it done?”

UPDATE, 7:32 PM (Ruairi): Biden said that War­ren and Sanders are “being vague” on the issue of Medicare for All. Sanders had a retort ready. He reeled off a list of things that Biden got done that weren’t pos­i­tive for the coun­try, like the dis­as­trous occu­pa­tion of Iraq, bad trade deals, and a revi­sion to the Unit­ed States bank­rupt­cy laws request­ed by corporations.

UPDATE, 7:33 PM (Ruairi): Sanders said that the Amer­i­can peo­ple pay twice as much as peo­ple in every oth­er devel­oped coun­try for health­care. Biden claimed that we can do that with­out Medicare For All. Sanders replied: “No, you can’t.”

UPDATE, 7:34 PM (Ruairi): On the issue of get­ting some­thing done, War­ren brought up her work to cre­ate the Con­sumer Finan­cial Pro­tec­tion Bureau.

UPDATE, 7:36 PM (Ruairi): Biden assert­ed to War­ren that “I went on the floor and got you votes” for the Dodd-Frank bill, which enact­ed the CFPB. War­ren paused before reply­ing, then said she is “deeply grate­ful” for every­one who fought for her plan. She says, “dream big, fight hard.”

UPDATE, 7:37 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg was asked about the vision for Democ­rats to beat Trump. He says that Biden, War­ren and Sanders’ plans are “a false choice.” He says that Biden’s idea of “back to nor­mal” won’t work for a changed America.

UPDATE, 7:38 PM (Ruairi): Buttigieg also decried the idea of “infi­nate par­ti­san strug­gle” that he says the bold­est plans of Democ­rats would bring. Klobuchar said that her ideas can win the “fly­over states,” and that she has a record of win­ning in red areas (specif­i­cal­ly, Repub­li­can con­gres­sion­al dis­tricts in Minnesota).

UPDATE, 7:39 PM (Ruairi): War­ren said peo­ple who are strug­gling with health­care or stu­dent loans or racism “are in a fight today.” Any­one who doesn’t under­stand that there is already a fight going on for most peo­ple will not win their votes.

UPDATE, 7:40 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders jus­ti­fied his man­i­festo of a polit­i­cal rev­o­lu­tion by declar­ing: “It is what the Amer­i­can peo­ple want!” He points to the mas­sive sup­port for his plans. “You have to inspire peo­ple, you have to excite peo­ple… because they know you stand for them, not cor­po­rate America.”

UPDATE, 7:42 PM (Andrew): Sanders and War­ren did a good job mak­ing the case that if you want to win a nation­wide elec­tion, you cam­paign effec­tive­ly with bold ideas that actu­al­ly address the scale of the prob­lems we face.

Ideas that inspire people.

UPDATE, 7:42 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke point­ed to his record of help­ing vet­er­ans in El Paso as a Rep­re­sen­ta­tive. Just because issues are not nation­al emer­gen­cies, it doesn’t mean they are unim­por­tant. He point­ed to his Senae cam­paign as a mod­el for win­ning over vot­ers to beat Trump.

UPDATE, 7:47 PM (Ruairi): The final ques­tion from the mod­er­a­tors (Ander­son Coop­er in par­tic­u­lar) con­cerned Ellen DeGeneres’ friend­ship with George W. Bush. Coop­er asked the can­di­dates to describe a “sur­pris­ing” friendship.

UPDATE, 7:48 PM (Ruairi): Julián Cas­tro said he has had many friend­ships with peo­ple who are extreme­ly dif­fer­ent. He agreed with Ellen’s “being kind to peo­ple” ethos, but stressed that we should hold peo­ple account­able for their actions.

UPDATE, 7:50 PM (Ruairi): Tul­si Gab­bard point­ed to her Hawai­ian her­itage, explain­ing the real mean­ing of “Alo­ha!”. She said that she and for­mer U.S. Rep­re­sen­ta­tive Trey Gowdy, a Repub­li­can, have devel­oped a rela­tion­ship based on mutu­al respect. She says she “doesn’t see deplorables.”

UPDATE, 7:51 PM (Ruairi): Amy Klobuchar said she miss­es John McCain “every day.” She vis­it­ed the sen­a­tor and war vet­er­an when he was dying of can­cer. She wants to remem­ber that what unites Amer­i­cans is big­ger than what divides us. She wants to bring inde­pen­dents and rea­son­able Repub­li­cans into her tent.

UPDATE, 7:53 PM (Ruairi): Tom Stey­er thought of Dean­na Berry, an activist who he said reminds him of his par­ents. He con­nect­ed his par­ents’ exam­ples of tak­ing on prob­lems direct­ly to why he start­ed tack­ling the cli­mate cri­sis, and start­ed the Need to Impeach campaign.

UPDATE, 7:53 PM (Andrew): The cli­mate cri­sis and relat­ed issues like defor­esta­tion and ocean pol­lu­tion once again got short shrift tonight, which is why there ought to be a DNC-sanc­tioned #Cli­mat­eDe­bate.

UPDATE, 7:54 PM (Ruairi): Beto O’Rourke recalled bring­ing peo­ple togeth­er to achieve: in his busi­ness, in the El Paso City Coun­cil, as a Rep­re­sen­ta­tive. He remem­bers dri­ving 1,600 miles with Repub­li­can Will Hurd, who is retir­ing from the U.S. House as part of the “Tex­o­dus”. At the end of the trip, they had devel­oped a friend­ship and trust. They then worked togeth­er in the House often.

UPDATE, 7:56 PM (Ruairi): Cory Book­er has often been oblig­ed by his polit­i­cal offices to make unusu­al friend­ships, whether that entailed to going to Bible stud­ies with James Inhofe or going to restau­rants with Ted Cruz. He says that rugged indi­vid­u­al­ism is noble, but there is so much more to America’s great legacy.

UPDATE, 7:56 PM (Ruairi): Book­er said he wants to “revive civic grace…patriotism is love of coun­try. You can­not love your coun­try unless you love your neigh­bors.” He wants to restore hon­or to the high­est office in the country.

UPDATE, 7:58 PM (Andrew): Oth­er issues that could and should have been dis­cussed at greater length tonight: Vot­ing rights and the need for secure elec­tions, afford­able hous­ing and land use poli­cies, and childcare.

UPDATE, 7:58 PM (Ruairi): Andrew Yang said he knows “a guy name Fred,” who is a truck­er, a Trump sup­port­er and a for­mer felon. Yang man­aged to per­suade Fred to join his cam­paign and move away from sup­port­ing Trump. He says that peo­ple suf­fer­ing from the fourth indus­tri­al rev­o­lu­tion don’t real­ly care about par­ty affil­i­a­tion. “It is not left, it is not right, it is for­ward” he said.

UPDATE, 8:00 PM (Ruairi): Kamala Har­ris said she and Rand Paul worked togeth­er in the Sen­ate to end mon­ey bail. She wants to be a leader that uni­fies the coun­try. She recalls her mother’s extra­or­di­nary life, hat con­vinced her that she could do any­thing. If Don­ald Trump had his way, her sto­ry would not be possible.

UPDATE, 8:00 PM (Ruairi): Har­ris said she is “unique­ly able” to see the com­mon­al­i­ties between the peo­ple of America.

UPDATE, 8:02 PM (Ruairi): Pete Buttigieg recalled his com­rades in the mil­i­tary who had dif­fer­ent expe­ri­ences, eth­nic­i­ties and pol­i­tics, but who trust­ed him with their lives and vice ver­sa. Buttigieg believes that “only the pres­i­dent can build a sense of belong­ing and pur­pose for the entire­ty of America.”

UPDATE, 8:03 PM (Ruairi): Bernie Sanders recalled work­ing with John McCain. He also cit­ed his work with Utah Repub­li­can Mike Lee on end­ing Amer­i­ca’s involve­ment in Sau­di Ara­bi­a’s awful war in Yemen.

UPDATE, 8:04 PM (Ruairi): Sanders said he wants to end the divi­sive­ness of the Trump regime. He also wants to bring peo­ple togeth­er around a “pro­gres­sive agen­da that stands for all.”

UPDATE, 8:05 PM (Ruairi): Eliz­a­beth War­ren thought of George Freed, a deeply prin­ci­pled Repub­li­can, who made sure she got a job that let her help peo­ple strug­gling with bank­rupt­cy. Two of her own broth­ers are Repub­li­cans, but she and they agree on so many things, she told the audience.

UPDATE, 8:06 PM (Ruairi): War­rren said that “peo­ple across this coun­try are ready to say no more, we want an Amer­i­ca that works for everyone…I know what’s bro­ken, I know how to fix it.”

UPDATE, 8:07 PM (Ruairi): Joe Biden is reas­sured that all the can­di­dates acknowl­edged the neces­si­ty of work­ing with Repub­li­cans to improve peo­ple’s lives. John McCain was a close friend of Biden. Biden not­ed that he gave a eulo­gy for McCain. Biden said that Trump has “ripped the soul out of this country.”

UPDATE, 8:08 PM (Ruairi): Biden con­clud­ed by say­ing that he wants vot­ers to remem­ber that “this is America…there’s noth­ing we’ve been unable to do when we decide to do it!” And with that, the debate ended.

We hope you enjoyed our live coverage!

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